Parantara vs Zhongjian Ren: Use the bridge to successfully negotiate in Indonesia

China and Indonesia both share some similar elements of culture, but dont assume they are the same

 

Indonesia has a long history of interaction with China and although the Ethnic Chinese have been trading in Indonesia for more than 1000 years, most of the present day Chinese Indonesian population started to arrive in Indonesia during the Dutch colonial period during  the 19th Century. Chinese Diaspora communities have brought with them cultures and traditions from China, and as a consequence the styles of behaviour common in China will be transferable to other countries and cultures within the broader Asian region. This assumption is not so straightforward in the Indonesian context due to the recent and historical conflict, criticism and victimisation of the ethnic Chinese-Indonesians by the ethic Indonesians.  Entrenched victimisation and discrimination has even been initiated and conducted by various Indonesian governments over the past 60 years since achieving Independence from Dutch colonial rule. Chinese identity in Indonesia has been eroded over time to the point where it was regulated by law that family names be “Indonesianised” and so it is now not possible to identify a person of Chinese heritage by their name. There has consequently been part assimilation in recent generations of ethnic Chinese Indonesian with the local ethnic Indonesian, and so it is not uncommon to find a person with a Chinese father and an ethnic Indonesian mother, or vice versa. 

The importance of Guanxi or ‘Social Capital’ has long been acknowledged in China, and similar issues of trust and social capital are equally important in other parts of Asia (see my article on Guanxi: http://wp.me/pS6DN-37). This principle is not solely related to managing your professional network, but additionally maintaining a strong and solid reputation within the network. As I wrote in a previous article (Zhongjian Ren: http://wp.me/pS6DN-3e) the importance of Zhongjian Ren or ‘The Intermediary’ in the Chinese business context, is a tried and tested method of transferring Guanxi and social capital from one person to another through introduction to members of a network. In practical sense using Zhongjian Ren is the principle of guaranteeing the quality of business partner, and putting one’s own Guanxi up as a guarantee of their good standing. The Zhongjian Ren in many cases will continue to play a part in the deal as a formal partner, until a sufficient level of Guanxi has been established. 

International business negotiations are a daily occurance in Indonesia today, don't be unprepared

 

Negotiators in Indonesian adopt a similar version of the Zhongjian Ren principle, however in Indonesia it is referred to as the Parantara or ‘The Bridge’. It is very important to utilise Parantara if a business negotiation is to be successful in Indonesia, and has been described as fundamental to conducting business the Indonesian way. The role of the Parantara changes during the many phases of the negotiation process. During the Pre-negotiation phase, the Parantara is used to sound out potential partners and make appropriate approaches and subsequent introductions on behalf one side. The Parantara is unseen during face to face negotiation, and in the early stage builds the bridge (metaphorically speaking of course) over which the negotiating parties can meet. An important distinction between the Chinese Zhongjian Ren, and Indonesian Parantara is that in the Indonesian business context the Parantara acts on behalf of both parties to assist in creating a successful and lasting outcome for both the negotiating parties. 

As the negotiation process progresses from pre-negotiation to face-to-face negotiation there are often issues that need to be resolved in order for the negotiation to continue. During the negotiation process in Indonesia it is imperative to maintain harmony, which often means that issues of conflict are not raised face to face in the formal negotiation. To raise issues that may cause conflict will affect the harmony of the relationship and would not be good for the long-term success of the negotiation or the future partnership. It is therefore necessary to utilise the Parantara to conduct informal negotiations to overcome the problem. The Parantara rarely forms part of the deal or partnership itself, and because of this separation from the negotiated deal the Parantara is able to maintain neutrality between the negotiating parties. Maintaining this neutrality is the key to the success of Parantara in forging successful business negotiations in Indonesia. 

So when you conduct business in Indonesia manage your professional networks by finding yourself a trusted Parantara who can help maintain the harmony in the relationship while you conduct your negotiations.

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Zhongjian Ren: How to borrow Guanxi to make Guanxi and generate business success in China

Building Guanxi takes time but the greater your Gaunxi the more you will see

In an earlier article I discussed the importance of Guanxi to your likely business success in China (http://wp.me/pS6DN-37). Building your Guanxi and social capital is critical. However, unfortunately it is not possible to instantly create Guanxi, which poses a problem if you are new to the business game in China. But the Chinese have a way of navigating around this issue of building Guanxi. As I mentioned in the previous article, it is best to think of Guanxi in terms of a bank deposit, and we all know the adage that you need money to make money…..well we can probably say the same thing for Guanxi: you need Guanxi to make Guanxi. So how do you build Guanxi if you need Guanxi in the first place?

Just as in a normal business setting, you can go to the bank and borrow some money to invest, and eventually make more money. With Guanxi it is the same…..essentially you can borrow someone else’s Guanxi in the short and medium term until your own Guanxi has had time to become established. Instead of borrowing from the Guanxi from a bank, you will borrow the Guanxi from the Zhongjian Ren or ‘the Intermediary’. There is a strong and traditional importance of the Zhongjian Ren or ‘The Intermediary’ in the Chinese business context, and this is a tried and tested method of transferring Guanxi and social capital from one person to another. In a practical sense using Zhongjian Ren is the principle of guaranteeing the quality of a business partner, and putting one’s own Guanxi up as a guarantee of their good standing. The Zhongjian Ren in many cases will continue to play a part in the deal as a formal partner, until a sufficient level of Guanxi has been established. Why does this work? and why Guanxi be transferrable if it is so important?

If you find the right Zhongjian Ren you will be able to navigate into the Forbidden City

The answer to these questions are quite simple. When the Zhongjian Ren or Intermediary provides an introduction of one person or business to another person or business, there is a lot of risk involved. If the new party that is introduced behaves poorly, unethically or fails to respect the relationship then this poor behaviour will reflect upon the Zhongjian Ren. This poor reflection is essentially a negative on your level of Guanxi of the Zhongjian Ren. The person or business acting as the Zhongjian Ren loses social capital, if the offence is serious enough the Zhongjian Ren could lose a substantial amount of social capital which will impact severely on their standing and status within the network. This risk that the Zhongjian Ren holds is the reason why they will often be part of the formal deal. If the Zhongjian Ren is not part of the formal deal, there could be another way they can be compensated for the risk they are taking.

This is why Guanxi is transferrable, and how it works. It is the equivalent of a bank guarantee, but instead related to respect, trust and social capital. So if you need to build your Guanxi in order to get a deal done in China, then look for someone to act as the Zhongjian Ren…..Just remember that your behaviour and the deal you strike will reflect upon on the person who has made the introduction. Respect Guanxi and the Zhongjian Ren and you will be well on your way to business success in China.

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